A System is an organized and at least theoretically delimited universe, whose components are interconnected, thus giving up their independence from the whole. In contrast to an aggregate according to Frerichs a system is defined as an autonomic structure consisting of parts that organize according to their own rules.

The interconnections may be quantified by the degree of cross-linking or clustering coefficient, i.e. the quotient of actual and possible links among the system's components.

Open system systems interact via matter, energy and or information with their environment. They usually show a higher degree of stability compared to closed systems.

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